RCS District-Wide Safety Plan 23-24


Emergencies and violent incidents in school districts are critical issues that must be addressed in an expeditious and effective manner. School Districts are required to develop a District-Wide Emergency Response Plan designed to prevent or minimize the effects of serious, violent incidents and emergencies and to facilitate the coordination of schools with local and county resources in the event of such incidents or emergencies.

The District-Wide Plan is responsive to the needs of all schools within the District and is consistent with the more detailed emergency response plans required at the school-building level. Schools are at risk of a wide variety of acts of violence and natural and technological disasters. To address these threats, the State of New York has enacted the Safe Schools Against Violence in Education (SAVE) law.

This component of Project SAVE is a comprehensive planning effort that addresses risk reduction/prevention, response, and recovery with respect to a variety of emergencies in the District and its schools.

The Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk SD supports the SAVE Legislation and intends to facilitate the planning process.  The District Superintendent of Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk encourages and advocates on-going cooperation and support of Project SAVE.


 A. Purpose

The Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk District-Wide Emergency Response Plan was developed pursuant to Commissioner’s Regulation 155.17. At the direction of the Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk Board of Education, the District Superintendent appointed a District Wide Emergency Response Team and charged it with the development and maintenance of the Emergency Response Plan.

 B. Identification of School Teams Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk has appointed a District Wide Emergency Response Team consisting of, but not limited to members of the school board, teacher organization(s), administrator organization(s), parent organization(s), school safety personnel, students (optional) and other school personnel including transportation department personnel.

The minimum membership of the team and their positions or affiliations are as follows:

  • Superintendent of Schools

  • Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction

  • School Business Administrator

  • A.W. Becker Principal

  • MS Principal

  • Pieter B. Coeymans Principal

  • HS Principal

  • Director of Transportation

  • Director of Facilities & Network Operations

  • Teachers' Union Representative(s)

  • School Safety and Health Consultant

  • Board of Education member(s)

  • Parents Organization member(s)

 C. Concept of Operations

  • The Emergency Response Plan is directly linked to the individual Building Level Emergency Response Plans as a matter of protocol.  The activation of a Building Level Emergency Response Plan triggers the notification of the chain of command and the assessment of the activation of the District Wide Emergency Response Plan and District Wide Response Team.

  • The Emergency Response Plan was developed through extensive analysis of the local environment, emergency potential, and available resources.  Through training and workshops that included school employees, administration and local emergency services, the plan has been developed to address the specific needs of Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk and the community.

  • In the event of an emergency or violent incident, the initial response to all emergencies at an individual school will be by the School Emergency Response Team.  The building principal is responsible for notifying the District Superintendent or the highest-ranking person in the chain of command of any necessary building-level plan activation.  This notification shall be accomplished through the use of telephone, unless otherwise necessary. 

  • Upon the activation of the School Emergency Response Team, the District Superintendent or his/her designee shall be notified and where appropriate, local emergency officials shall also be notified.

  • County and state resources supplement the District’s emergency action planning in a number of ways:

  • State and local law enforcement provide building reviews and employee training.

  • Local law enforcement and emergency services participate in planning and training exercises and develop strategies for managing Building Level emergencies.

  • A protocol exists for the District to use certain facilities for sheltering during times of emergencies.

  • A protocol exists for the use of county mental health resources during post-incident responses.

 D. Plan Review and Public Comment

-   Pursuant to Commissioner’s Regulation, Section 155.17 (e)(3), this plan will be made available for public comment at least 30 days prior to its adoption. The District’s Board of Education shall adopt the Emergency Response Plan only after one public hearing that provides for the participation of school personnel, parents, students and any other interested parties. The plan shall be formally adopted by the Board of Education.

 -   Full copies of the Emergency Response Plan and any amendments shall be submitted to the New York State Education Department within 30 days of adoption.

 -   This plan shall be reviewed periodically during the year and maintained by the District Wide Emergency Response Team. The required annual review shall be completed on or before September 1 of each year after its adoption by the Board of Education.


 A. Prevention/Intervention Strategies

     Program Initiatives

    The District has developed a number of programs and activities to aid in risk reduction.  These initiatives are run at different age groups within the District.  Examples of the topics covered:

  •  Youth-run programs

  • Anti-bullying Programs

  • Conflict resolution

  • Peer Leadership Programs

  • Drug Abuse Resistance Education Programs

  • Codes of Conduct

  • Crisis Response/Intervention Plans.

  • Second Step program

  • PBIS

  • An Apple A Day program

  • Student Council

  • Best Buddies

  • Natural Helpers

  • SADD (Students Against Destructive Decisions)

  • Student Government

 Facilities Initiatives

The District has attempted to enhance the security of its facilities through a number of initiatives, including the following:

  • Sign-in procedures and use of visitor ID badges with visual contact.

  • Employees use faculty/staff ID badges.

  • Schools have developed a single point of access for visitors at each building.

  • Installation of interior and exterior surveillance cameras throughout our campuses.

  • Key card distribution to employees and students to gain building access through door readers.

 Training, Drills, and Exercises

The District has established policies and procedures for annual multi-hazard school safety training for employees and students.  Training includes:

  • An annual review of the building level emergency guides and general employee awareness training for building employees conducted by each principal.

  • The annual early go home drill to test evacuation and sheltering procedures.

  • Each school building conducts fire drills throughout the course of the year in compliance with the SED schedule for the purpose of familiarizing employees and students with emergency procedures.

  • A Building Level tabletop exercise run in cooperation with members of local emergency services.

The District shall conduct drills and other exercises to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the District’s Emergency Response Plan. Each building principal will forward a schedule of planned emergency drills and fire drills to the District Superintendent by the beginning of each school year.  Each principal will be required to complete a minimum number of student drills as follows:

  •  4 lockdown drills, 8 fire/evacuation drills.  8 of which must be conducted by December 31 of each year, the balance must be conducted during the remainder of the school year.

The District shall conduct tabletop exercises with the Building Level safety teams to test the components of the emergency response plan.  The narratives, sequence of events and messaging for each exercise shall be developed by select members of the District Wide Safety Team, Emergency Management Consultants and local emergency services.  A controller, evaluator, and simulator shall conduct each tabletop exercise.  The suggestions and necessary enhancements of the Building Level Plan noted during the evaluation shall be documented by the evaluator and provided to the Building Level Safety Team and District Wide Safety Team for further evaluation.

 Topics for training will include general security and safety measures, intervention strategies with difficult or challenging students, building security awareness, violence prevention, mental health, and reporting requirements and procedures. 

 In the execution of their duties, faculty, aides and monitors shall have responsibility for:

  • Monitoring halls, lavatories, locker rooms, locker bays and similar areas, assuring orderly passage of students and pre-emptive intervention in potentially disruptive situations.

  • Observation of the general property, including the immediate outside area/perimeter of the building(s), with an obligation to report suspicious activity to district or building administration.

  • Overseeing study halls, cafeterias, or other areas of student assemblage with the goal of assisting to maintain an orderly, safe environment.

 Chief Emergency Officer

The Chief Emergency Officer shall act as the liaison between the District and external agenices during times of emergencies as well as during plan development and maintenance. The Chief Emergency Officer for the Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk School District is Dr. Brian Bailey.

 School Safety Personnel

School safety personnel have a critical role in violence prevention.  The following represents a description of the responsibilities of school safety personnel in schools:

 The building principal or his/her designee shall serve as the School Safety Representative for the school building.  The responsibilities of the School Safety Representative are as follows:

  • Monitor hallways, entryways, exits and outside grounds during school hours for unusual occurrences or unauthorized visitors.

  • Act as building liaison in communicating building level safety issues or concerns.

    • Represent the building on the District Wide Health and Safety Committee.

    • Serve on Building Level School Building Response Team.

    • Attend school safety meetings and be a resource on school safety and security issues for building employees.

    • Develop plans and strategies for building security, crime and violence prevention, safety planning and employee training.

    • Participate in school incident investigations.

    • Respond to implied and direct threats of violence by students, teachers, other school personnel, and visitors to the school. 

    • Respond to all school emergencies as part of the building’s Emergency Response Plan.

    • Coordinate annual school safety multi-hazard training for students and employees.  Multi-hazard training shall include crisis intervention, emergency response and management.

    • Employees and students shall receive annual training and drill practice on protocols for bomb threats, evacuation, sheltering, lockdown, relocate to hallway, fire emergency, bus drills and appropriate violence prevention strategies.

    • Designate procedure for informing substitute teaching and non-teaching employees of school safety protocols.

  • Comply and encourage compliance with all school safety and security policies and procedures established by the Board of Education.

  • Attend professional development activities on school safety and violence prevention.

  • All school safety personnel shall be provided with training on violence prevention and school safety.  All training courses shall receive prior approval from the District Superintendent or his/her designee.

 Hiring and Screening of School Personnel

The following hiring and screening practices are followed for the hiring of all personnel:

 Fingerprinting and Criminal Background Checks:

For all employees hired by schools, the District completes a fingerprinting and criminal background check prior to appointment.  No employee works in the District until fingerprint clearance is received.  Employees include: any person receiving compensation for work from schools; any employee of a contracted service provider involved in direct student contact; any worker assigned to a school under a public assistance employment program (includes part-time employees and substitutes).

Reference Checks:

References are thoroughly checked prior to extending an employment offer. 

  • Reference check forms are used for instructional, non-instructional and transportation personnel.

  • Reference checks are completed and reviewed by the administrative team along with the application.

  • Prior to making a job offer to a prospective employee, the following mandatory questions are asked during reference checks with immediate and/or past supervisors:

    • Do you have knowledge of any violations of safety or security by (prospective employee) related to students, employees or others?

    • Why did (prospective employee) leave your employment? Or, do you know why (prospective employee) is leaving your employment?

    • Would you rehire (prospective employee)?  If no, why not?

 B. Early Detection of Potentially Violent Behaviors

 he District has implemented policies and procedures related to the early detection of potentially violent behaviors.  Each building principal is responsible for the dissemination of informative materials regarding the early detection of potentially violent behaviors to employees and parents each school year. In addition, employees shall receive training on the District’s Code-of-Conduct and awareness training on violent behaviors, to be conducted or coordinated by the District Superintendent. 


 A. Notification and Activation (Internal and External Communications)

·           In cases of a seriously violent incident, the District would use the procedure listed below to meet the requirements for notification and activation.  A serious violent incident is an incident of violent criminal conduct that is, or appears to be, life threatening and warrants the evacuation of students and employees because of an imminent threat to their safety or health.  This includes, but is not limited to, the use or threatened use of a firearm, explosive, bomb, incendiary device, chemical, or biological weapons, knives or other dangerous instrument capable of causing death or serious injury, riots, hostage-taking, or kidnapping.

 Communications systems are:



Public Address System and Radios. All Administrators are authorized by the District Superintendent to use ALL CALL on District Phones or PA system to notify the Entire Campus of a threat (i.e. Lockdown, Safety Hold, Shelter in Place, etc.).

Teachers and Building staff 

Public address system and radios.


Public address system and verbally from supervising teachers

District Superintendent

Public address system and radios.

Buildings and Grounds 

Public address system and radios.

Board of Education



New York State Police:

911 or 518-783-3211

Albany County Sheriff’s Office:


Coeymans Police Department


Town P.D.


Sheriff’s Office


Fire Department



District Website:  rcscsd.org

Transportation Phone Emergency Information: 518-756-5200 x 7009

The district will also utilize local radio frequency, radio stations, and television stations:

The Communications Specialist or the Superintendent’s Designee would be responsible for conveying emergency information to educational facilities within the Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk SD.  The Communications Specialist would take appropriate steps to secure the following information about each educational agency within the District:  Number of students, number of employees, transportation requirements associated with the evacuation of each facility and the business and home telephone numbers of key officials of each agency. Such information would be updated at least annually by the Director of Communications.  Each such agency would report material changes to such data to the Director of Communications, in writing, within seven days of such change.

Information will be provided to parents, guardians or persons in parental relation to the students in the event of a violent incident or an early dismissal through the use of telephone by employees at the building level using the student/parent directory and/or local and regional radio and TV stations.  These are the same stations that are used to announce official delays or closings.  This information is provided to parents through the website and building handbooks.  Additionally, if an event occurs at the campus where students cannot be released immediately, a parent/community public information center may be established at another campus building.

In the event that this public information center is established, parents and community members are encouraged not to report to the main campus where a building may be in crisis, but rather gather at a designated meeting place where regular public information statements will be made by the Director of Communications or designee.

B. Situational Responses – Multi-Hazard Response and Response Protocols
Staff cooperation is critical when an act of violence occurs.  In the event of a criminal act, bomb threat, civil disturbance, intrusion, hostage taking, kidnapping or other threatening event, staff response may include:

  1. Verbal instructions to cease the behavior.

  2. Call for assistance from other staff.

  3. Verbal instructions to follow classroom emergency procedures based on the main office’s instruction over the public address system.

  4. Call law enforcement and other necessary emergency response agencies.

  5. Removal of any onlookers that could aggravate the situation.

  6. Not invading the space of the individual(s) involved.

  7. Removal of any potentially dangerous weapons or objects.

  8. Physical restraint if other actions do not stop the violence.

In the event of a violent incident, the following policies and procedures are to be followed at the District level:

  • The District Superintendent will ensure the Building Level team has adequate resources to respond to the emergency.

  • The Director of Communications will develop a public information strategy to communicate necessary information to the media, parents and staff.

  • The Central Office will notify the Assistant Superintendent who is the leader of the District’s Crisis Intervention Team of the event.

  • The District Superintendent will notify appropriate Board of Education members of the incident.

  • The District Superintendent will file any necessary information with the State Education Department (for example, school bomb threat data cards).

In the event of a violent incident, the following policies and procedures are to be followed at the school building level:

  • Student reports an incident to an adult or adult observes an incident.

  • Adult takes appropriate action as necessary to respond to the incident.

  • A written referral is forwarded to the building principal.

  • School guidance counselor, social worker and nurse are involved when necessary.

  • Building principal will conference with the student(s) involved to determine the problems/issues.

  • If parental notification is necessary, building principal will contact the parent(s) and may arrange a parent conference.

  • Appropriate discipline will be administered following the District Code of Conduct and incident reported to the State Education Department when appropriate.

Follow-up of the violent incident should include:

  1. Investigation of the incident by the building principal and law enforcement, as necessary.

  2. Preparation of written accounts of the incident by all involved.

  3. Review of written accounts by the building principal for any disparities.

  4. Appropriate disciplinary action according to the code of conduct.

  5. Review of the entire incident by the administration for future planning:

    A. What happened?

    B. Where did it happen?

    C. When did it happen?

    D. Why did it happen?

    E. How did it happen?
    F. How many individuals were involved?
    G. Are the individuals associated with a group?
    H. How could the incident have been prevented?
    I. What warning signs were missed?
    J. What can we do to prevent a future incident?

  1. Counseling or other needed support for the victim(s), other students and staff involved in the incident.

  2. Necessary reporting and parental notification.

Each school’s Building Level plan lists building-specific response actions to criminal acts, bomb threats, civil disturbance, intrusion, hostage taking, kidnapping, as well as technological and natural disasters.

Chain of Command 

  1. Dr. Brian Bailey, District Superintendent

  2. Jean Winkler, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction

  3. Bill Schrom, Director of Facilities and Network Operations 

  4. Jesse Boehme, School Business Administrator

Arrangements for Obtaining Emergency Assistance from Local Government
The administration shall use the following process in making arrangements for obtaining assistance during emergencies from emergency services organizations and local government agencies: 

  • Superintendent/Designee in an emergency contacts dispatch point or 911 center for fire or EMS response.

  • Superintendent/Designee contacts highest-ranking local government official for notification and/or assistance.

Procedures for Obtaining Advice and Assistance from Local Government Officials
The Administration shall use the following protocol for obtaining advice and assistance from local government officials including the county or city officials responsible for the implementation of Article 2-B of the Executive Law:

  • Superintendent/Designee in an emergency will contact emergency management coordinator and/or the highest ranking local government official for obtaining advice and assistance.  

  • The District has identified resources for an emergency from the following agencies: (examples include the Red Cross, fire department, police, private industry, private individuals, religious organizations and others).

District Resources Available for Use in an Emergency
Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk has created a comprehensive list of resources available during an emergency, including fuel sources, communications, food service capability, maintenance vehicle lists, and medical supplies and AED, CPR and First Aid trained staff.   Specific information in each of these categories is contained in the Building Level plans.

Procedures to Coordinate the Use of School District Resources and Manpower during Emergencies
The District shall use the following procedure to coordinate the use of school resources and manpower during emergencies:

  • The Building Principal of the affected facility shall contact the District Superintendent or his/her designee and request the necessary manpower or resources.  

  • The District Superintendent or the highest-ranking person in the chain of command shall assess the request and allocate personnel and resources as necessary.

Protective Action Options
Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk shall follow the following protocols in assessing the appropriate protective action option.  The decision to cancel school, to dismiss early, shelter in place or evacuate, shall be made in cooperation with state and local emergency responders, as appropriate.

  • School Cancellation

    • Monitor any situation that may warrant a school cancellation – Superintendent/Safety Team.

    • Make determination – Superintendent.

    • Contact local media – Superintendent or Director of Communications & Governmental Relations.

  • School Delay

    • Monitor any situation that may warrant school delay – Building Administrators/ Superintendent/Safety Team.

    • If conditions warrant, delay the opening of school.

    • Contact Transportation Supervisor to coordinate transportation issues.

    • Contact local media to inform parents of delayed opening.

    • Set up an information center so that parents may make inquiries as to the situation.

    • Provide for the safety and security of employees and students who do come to school.

  • Early Dismissal

    • Monitor situation – Superintendent/Safety Team.

    • If conditions warrant, close school – Superintendent.

    • Contact Transportation Supervisor to arrange transportation.

    • Contact local media to inform parents of early dismissal.

    • Set up an information center so that parents may make inquiries as to the situation.

    • Retain appropriate personnel until all students have been returned home.

  • Evacuation (before, during and after school hours, including security during evacuation and evacuation routes)

    • Determine the level of threat – Superintendent or Designee.

    • Contact Transportation Supervisor to arrange transportation – Superintendent or Designee.

    • Clear all evacuation routes and sites prior to evacuation.

    • Evacuate all employees and students to pre-arranged evacuation sites.

    • Account for all student and employee populations. Report any missing employees or students to Building Principal.

    • Make a determination regarding early dismissal – Superintendent or Designee.

    • If a determination was made to dismiss early, contact local media to inform parents of early dismissal.

    • Ensure adult supervision or continued school supervision/security.

    • Set up an information center so that parents may make inquiries as to the situation.

    • Retain appropriate personnel until all students have been returned home.

  • Sheltering Sites (internal and external)

    • Determine the level of threat – Superintendent/Incident Commander /Designee.

    • Determine the location of sheltering depending on the nature of the incident.

    • Account for all students and employees.  Report any missing employees or students to the designee.

    • Determine other occupants in the building.

    • Make appropriate arrangements for human needs.

    • Take appropriate safety precautions.

    • Establish a Director of Communications to provide information and current status of the situation to parents and other inquiring parties.

    • Retain appropriate personnel until all students have been returned home.


A. Central Administration Support for Buildings
The Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk District Wide Team will support the Building Level Emergency Response Team and the Crisis/Post-Incident Response Teams in affected schools.  

B. Disaster Mental Health Services
The Central Office shall assist in the coordination of Disaster Mental Health Resources, in support of the Post-Incident Response Teams in the affected schools.  

Appendix 1 – Required Plan Development Procedures
Ravena-Coeymans Selkirk has revised the District Wide Emergency Response Plan in accordance
with the 2016 New York Emergency Response Guide. 

The District Wide Safety Team listed below contributed to revision of this plan.  
The plan was re-adopted by the board and was filed with the Commissioner of Education no later than 30 days after its adoption.

Committee Members – District Wide Safety Team 

  • Superintendent of Schools

  • Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction

  • School Business Manager

  • A.W. Becker Principal

  • MS Principal

  • Pieter B. Coeymans Principal

  • HS Principal

  • Director of Transportation

  • Director of Facilities & Network Operations

  • Board Member

  • Teacher’s Union Representative

  • School Safety and Health Consultant

Appendix 2 – Listing of all District Buildings
Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk Building Names and Locations

A.W. Becker Elementary School
1146 Route 9W
Selkirk, NY 12158 
(518) 756-5200, ext. 5000
Fax: (518) 767-2512 
Deb Neubart, 

Pieter B. Coeymans Elementary School
66 Church Street
Coeymans, NY 12045 
(518) 756-5200, ext. 4000
Fax: (518) 756-9162
Hakim Jones, 

RCS Middle School
2025 Rt. 9W
Ravena, NY 12143 
(518) 756-5200, ext. 3000
Fax: (518) 756-1988
Denise Capece, 

RCS High School
2025 Rt. 9W
Ravena, NY 12143 
(518) 756-5200, ext. 2003
HS/Guidance Fax: 756-3534
Ryan Funck, 

Communications Specialist
518-756-5200 x 6017

Website Address

Appendix 3 – The Early Detection of Potentially Violent Behaviors
A Guide for Families and Communities

Early Warning Signs for Potential Violence
While there is no useful profile of an active shooter and while we understand that it is not always possible to predict behavior that will lead to violence, there are factors that we see commonly linked to acts of school violence.  Furthermore, in many acts of school violence information is shared with peers, on social media, or in art to make others aware of the fact that an act of violence may occur – which is defined as “leakage”.  School personnel, students, and parents may all be in a position to observe and identify these warning signs and make others aware before an act of school violence ever occurs. 

No single sign is sufficient for predicting aggression and violence. Moreover, it is inappropriate – and potentially harmful – to use these early warning signs as a checklist against which to match an individual child. Rather, the warnings are offered as an aid in identifying and referring children may need help towards a path of rehabilitation and intervention. The goal of threat assessment and other associated programs is not punitive in nature – the goal is to help a student or other individual who may be struggling. A good rule of thumb is to assume that these warning, especially when they are presented in combination with each other, indicate a need for further analysis to help determine an appropriate and effective intervention strategy.

The information that follows and such other information as may be appropriate concerning Early Warning shall be made available to all employees in a form to be determined by the Superintendent. It is the policy of the School District that employees and students use the early warning signs only for identification and referral purposes. Trained professionals should make diagnoses in consultation with the child's parents or guardian.

The following early warning signs are cited by the United States Department of Education in its publication entitled Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools and are presented with the following qualifications: they are not equally significant and they are not presented in order of seriousness. They include: 

  • Social withdrawal. In some situations, gradual and eventually complete withdrawal from social contacts can be an important indicator of a troubled child. The withdrawal often stems from feelings of depression, rejection, persecution, unworthiness, and lack of confidence. 

  • Excessive feelings of isolation and being alone. Research has shown that the majority of children who are isolated and appear to be friendless are not violent. In fact, these feelings are sometimes characteristic of children and youth who may be troubled, withdrawn, or have internal issues that hinder the development of social affiliations. However, research also has shown that in some cases feelings of isolation and not having friends are associated with children who behave aggressively and violently. 

  • Excessive feelings of rejection. In the process of growing up, and in the course of adolescent development, many young people experience emotionally painful rejection. Children who are troubled often are isolated from their mentally healthy peers. Their responses to rejection will depend on many background factors. Without support, they may be at risk of expressing their emotional distress in negative ways-including violence. Some aggressive children who are rejected by non-aggressive peers seek out aggressive friends who, in turn, reinforce their violent tendencies. 

  • Being a victim of violence. Children who are victims of violence-including physical or sexual abuse in the community, at school, or at home are sometimes at risk of becoming violent toward themselves or others. 

  • Feelings of being picked on and persecuted. The youth who feels constantly picked on, teased, bullied, singled out for ridicule, and humiliated at home or at school may initially withdraw socially. If not given adequate support in addressing these feelings, some children may vent them in inappropriate ways-including possible aggression or violence. 

  • Low school interest and poor academic performance. Poor school achievement can be the result of many factors. It is important to consider whether there is a drastic change in performance and/or poor performance becomes a chronic condition that limits the child's capacity to learn. In some situations--such as when the low achiever feels frustrated, unworthy, chastised, and denigrated--acting out and aggressive behaviors may occur. It is important to assess the emotional and cognitive reasons for the academic performance change to determine the true nature of the problem. 

  • Expression of violence in writings and drawings. Children and youth often express their thoughts, feelings, desires, and intentions in their drawings and in stories, poetry, and other written expressive forms. Many children produce work about violent themes that for the most part is harmless when taken in context. However, an overrepresentation of violence in writings and drawings that is directed at specific individuals (family members, peers, other adults) consistently over time, may signal emotional problems and the potential for violence. Because there is a real danger in misdiagnosing such a sign, it is important to seek the guidance of a qualified professional--such as a school psychologist, counselor, or other mental health specialist--to determine its meaning. 

  • Uncontrolled anger. Everyone gets angry; anger is a natural emotion. However, anger that is expressed frequently and intensely in response to minor irritants may signal potential violent behavior toward self or others.

  • Patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullying behaviors. Children often engage in acts of shoving and mild aggression. However, some mildly aggressive behaviors such as constant hitting and bullying of others that occur early in children's lives, if left unattended, might later escalate into more serious behaviors. 

  • History of discipline problems. Chronic behavior and disciplinary problems both in school and at home may suggest that underlying emotional needs are not being met. These unmet needs may be manifested in acting out and aggressive behaviors. These problems may set the stage for the child to violate norms and rules, defy authority, disengage from school, and engage in aggressive behaviors with other children and adults. 

  • Past history of violent and aggressive behavior. Unless provided with support and counseling, a youth who has a history of aggressive or violent behavior is likely to repeat those behaviors. Aggressive and violent acts may be directed toward other individuals, be expressed in cruelty to animals, or include fire setting. Youth who show an early pattern of antisocial behavior frequently and across multiple settings are particularly at risk for future aggressive and antisocial behavior. Similarly, youth who engage in overt behaviors such as bullying, generalized aggression and defiance, and covert behaviors such as stealing, vandalism, lying, cheating, and fire setting also are at risk for more serious aggressive behavior. Research suggests that age of onset may be a key factor in interpreting early warning signs. For example, children who engage in aggression and drug abuse at an early age (before age 12) are more likely to show violence later on than are children who begin such behavior at an older age. In the presence of such signs it is important to review the child's history with behavioral experts and seek parents' observations and insights. 

  • Intolerance for differences and prejudicial attitudes. All children have likes and dislikes. However, an intense prejudice toward others based on racial, ethnic, religious, language, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and physical appearance--when coupled with other factors--may lead to violent assaults against those who are perceived to be different. Membership in hate groups or the willingness to victimize individuals with disabilities or health problems also should be treated as early warning signs. 

  • Drug use and alcohol use. Apart from being unhealthy behaviors, drug use and alcohol use reduces self-control and exposes children and youth to violence, either as perpetrators, as victims, or both. 

  • Affiliation with gangs. Gangs that support anti-social values and behaviors--including extortion, intimidation, and acts of violence toward other students--cause fear and stress among other students. Youth who are influenced by these groups--those who emulate and copy their behavior, as well as those who become affiliated with them--may adopt these values and act in violent or aggressive ways in certain situations. Gang-related violence and turf battles are common occurrences tied to the use of drugs that often result in injury and/or death. 

  • Inappropriate access to, possession and use of firearms. Children and youth who inappropriately possess or have access to firearms can have an increased risk for violence. Research shows that such youngsters also have a higher probability of becoming victims. Families can reduce inappropriate access and use by restricting, monitoring, and supervising children's access to firearms and other weapons. Children who have a history of aggression, impulsiveness, or other emotional problems should not have access to firearms and other weapons. 

  • Serious threats of violence. Idle threats are a common response to frustration. Alternatively, one of the most reliable indicators that a youth is likely to commit a dangerous act toward self or others is a detailed and specific threat to use violence. Recent incidents across the country clearly indicate that threats to commit violence against oneself or others should be taken very seriously. Steps must be taken to understand the nature of these threats and to prevent them from being carried out. 

Identifying and Responding to Imminent Warning Signs
Unlike early warning signs, imminent warning signs indicate that a student is very close to behaving in a way that is potentially dangerous to self and/or to others. Imminent warning signs require an immediate response.

No single warning sign can predict that a dangerous act will occur. Rather, imminent warning signs usually are presented as a sequence of overt, serious, hostile behaviors or threats directed at peers, employees, or other individuals. Usually, imminent warning signs are evident to more than one employee member--as well as to the child's family.

Imminent warning signs may include: 

  • Serious physical fighting with peers or family members. 

  • Severe destruction of property. 

  • Severe rage for seemingly minor reasons. 

  • Detailed threats of lethal violence. 

  • Possession and/or use of firearms and other weapons. 

  • Other self-injurious behaviors or threats of suicide. 

  • Making others aware of a potential upcoming threat of violence.

  • Taking planning steps toward an attack

Threat Assessment
In conjunction with physical security and emergency management, threat assessment is a key tool in ensuring the safety and security of our school communities.  The goal of threat assessment is to identify students of concern, assess their risk for engaging in harmful behavior or violence against themselves or others, and identify intervention strategies to manage that risk and provide solutions for the student.  Threat assessment is a multidisciplinary process that includes multiple members of the community responding to a potential threat of violence in order to field a meaningful and comprehensive solution.  Threat assessment aims to gather facts that lead to a set of meaningful and accurate conclusions which develop and produce strategies to curb destructive behavior.  

A threat is an expression of intent to do harm or act out violently against someone or something. A threat can be written, spoken, or symbolic – as in motioning with one’s hands as though shooting or strangling another person. There are principally four types of threats – direct, indirect, veiled and conditional. 

Individuals who make threats normally manifest other behaviors or emotions that are indicative of a problem. These can include: signs of depression, prolonged brooding, evidence of frustration or disappointment; fantasies of destruction or revenge in conversations, writings, drawings or other actions; expressions of intense love, fear, rage, revenge, excitement or pronounced desire for recognition. Use of alcohol or drugs can be an aggravating factor, as can a romantic breakup, failing grades, or conflicts with parents or friends. 

When performing threat assessment we understand that no single past event can provide us with all of the answers for the future, but we do understand that past events can provide us with a pathway towards understanding behaviors that may be indicative of larger problems.  We know that past student attackers usually had multiple motives, most commonly being a grievance with classmates, we know that most attackers had experienced psychological, behavioral, or developmental symptoms, we know that attackers typically have interest in violent topics, we know that nearly all attackers have experienced social stressors involving their relationships with peers and/or romantic partners, we know that nearly every attacker experienced negative home life factors, we know that most attackers were victims of bullying, which was often observed by others, we know that most attackers had a history of school disciplinary actions, and we know that all past attackers had exhibited concerning behaviors, most had elicited concerns from others, and most communicated their intent to attack to others.  

Personality Traits
Personality traits and behaviors that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include: 

  • a student intentionally or unintentionally revealing clues to feelings, thoughts, fantasies, attitudes, or intentions that may signal an impending violent act; 

  • low tolerance of frustration, easily hurt, insulted, angered by real or perceived injustices; 

  • poor coping skills, demonstrating little ability to deal with frustration, criticism, disappointment, failure, rejection or humiliation; 

  • lack of resiliency is unable to bounce back from frustrating and disappointing experiences; failed love relationship, cannot accept or comes to term with humiliation or rejection; 

  • injustice collector, nurses resentment over real or perceived injustices, will not forgive or forget those who s/he believes are responsible; 

  • narcissism, self-centered, lacking insight to the needs / feelings of others, blames others for failure and disappointment, may embrace the role of victim, display signs of paranoia, self-importance or grandiosity masking feelings of unworthiness, notably thick or thin skinned;

  • alienation, feels different or estranged from others, more than being a loner, involves feelings of isolation, sadness, loneliness, not belonging or fitting in;

  • dehumanizes others, fails to see others as humans, sees them as objects to be thwarted;

  • lacks empathy, demonstrates inability to understand feelings of others, may ridicule displays of emotion as weak or stupid;

  • exaggerated sense of entitlement, has a sense of being superior and constantly expects special treatment and consideration;

  • attitude of superiority, has a sense of being superior to others, smarter, more creative, talented, experienced, more worldly;

  • exaggerated / pathological need for attention, positive or negative, regardless of the circumstances;

  • externalizes blame, consistently refuses to take responsibility for own actions, blames others, often seems impervious to rational argument and common sense;

  • masks low self-esteem, may display arrogance, self-glorifying attitude, avoids high visibility or involvement, may be considered a “non-entity” by peers:

  • intolerance, racial, ethnic, religious and other, displays symbols and slogans of intolerance on self or possessions;

  • inappropriate humor, macabre, insulting, belittling, or mean.

  • Attempts to manipulate others, attempts to con and manipulate to win trust so others will rationalize aberrant behavior;

  • Lack of trust, is untrusting and suspicious of the motives and intentions of others, may approach clinically paranoid state;

  • Closed social group, introverted, with acquaintances rather than friends, may associate only with a single small group to the exclusion of others;

  • Manifests a dramatic change in behavior, academic performance, disobedience of school rules, schedules, dress codes etc.

  • Demonstrates unusual interest in sensational violence or acts of mass violence, may have a fascination or predilection towards violence that had occurred in previous school attacks;

  • Fascination with violence-filled entertainment, movies, TV, computer games, music videos, printed material, an inordinate amount of time with violent computer games and websites involving violent weapons and disturbing objects;

  • Has negative role models, drawn to negative, inappropriate role models, such as past perpetrators of acts of mass or school;

  • Manifests behavior that is relevant to carrying out a threat, spends an inordinate amount of time practicing with firearms, on violent websites, begins excluding normal pursuits such as homework, class, work, time with friends, is seen mapping out the building or discussing plans for how they would carry out an attack, may create a “hit list” of people that they have grievances with.

Negative Home-Life Dynamics  
A student’s home life, and any stressors that may be new to the student, such as a parental divorce or separation, drug use or criminal charges among family members, or domestic abuse, could severely harm a child’s life and predisposition towards carrying out a threat of violence.  While none of the factors here should be viewed as a predictor that a student will be violent, past reaserch has identified an association with a difficult home life and a range of negative outcomes for children

School Dynamics
School dynamics that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include: 

  • Student attachment to school, student appears detached from school, other students, teachers, and school activities;

  • Tolerance for disrespectful behavior, school does little to prevent or punish disrespectful behavior between students, bullying is part of the school culture, school authorities are oblivious to bullying, little or no intervention by school authorities, school atmosphere promotes racial or class divisions, allows them to remain unchallenged;

  • Inequitable discipline, discipline is inequitably applied or is perceived as such by students or employees;

  • Inflexible culture, official and unofficial patterns of behavior, values and relationships among students, teachers and administrators are static, unyielding and insensitive to changes in society and the changing needs of newer students;

  • Pecking order among students, certain groups have more prestige and respect – both officially and unofficially by students and school officials;

  • Code of silence, prevails among students, little trust between students and employees, students and staff are unclear about who they should report potential threats to, there is no monitoring or reporting system currently in place;

  • Unsupervised computer access, access is unsupervised and unmonitored, students are able to play violent games, explore inappropriate websites, promote violent hate groups, give instruction in bomb-making etc.

Social Dynamics
Social dynamics that should be considered in assessing the likelihood of a student carrying out a threat include: 

  • Media, entertainment and technology, easy unmonitored access to media, entertainment and Internet sites with violent themes and images;

  • Peer groups, intense and extensive involvement with a group that shares a fascination with violence or extremist beliefs;

  • Outside interests, outside interests of students are important to note as they can mitigate or increase the school’s level of concern in assessing a threat;

  • The copycat effect, school shootings and other violent incidents that receive intense media attention can generate threats or copycat violence elsewhere, school employees should be highly vigilant in the aftermath of such incidents.

Appendix 4 – Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry

DOE and United States Secret Service Threat Assessment Guide

Eleven Key Areas

  1. What are the student’s motives and goals?

  • What motivated the student to make the statement or take action that caused him/her to come to attention?

  • Does the situation or circumstance that led to these statements or actions still exist?

  • Does the student have a major grievance or grudge? Against whom?

  • What efforts have been made to resolve the problem and what has been the result? Does the potential attacker feel that any part of the problem is resolved or see any alternatives?

  1. Has the student shown inappropriate interest in any of the following?

  • School attacks or attackers; weapons (including recent acquisition of any relevant weapon); incidents of mass violence (terrorism, workplace violence, mass murders). Ask about  Columbine, Santana, etc.

  1. Have there been any communications suggesting ideas or intent to attack?

  • What if anything has the student communicated to someone else (targets, friends, other students, teachers, family, others) or written in a diary, journal, or website concerning his/her ideas and/or intentions?

  • Have friends been alerted or “warned away”?

  1. Has the student engaged in attack-related behaviors? These behaviors might include:

  • Developing an attack or plan

  • Making efforts to acquire or practice with weapons

  • Casing or checking out, possible sites and areas for an attack

  • Rehearsing attacks or ambushes

  1. Is the student’s conversation and “story” consistent with his or her actions?

  • Does information from collateral interviews and form the student’s own behavior confirm or dispute what the student says is going on?

  1. Does the student have the capacity to carry out an act of targeted violence?

  • How organized is the student’s thinking and behavior?

  • Does the student have the means; e.g., access to a weapon, to carry out an attack?

  1. Is the student experiencing hopelessness, desperation and/or despair?

  • Is there information to suggest that the student is experiencing desperation and/or despair?

  • Has the student experienced a recent failure, loss and/or loss of status?

  • Is the student known to be having difficulty coping with a stressful event?

  • Is the student now, or has the student ever been, suicidal or “accident-prone”?

  • Has the student engaged in behavior that suggests that he or she has considered ending their life?

  1. Does the student have a trusting relationship with at least one responsible adult?

  • Does the student have at least one relationship with an adult where the student feels that he or she can confide in the adult and believes that the adult will listen without judging or jumping to conclusions? (Students with trusting relationships with adults may be directed away from violence and despair and toward hope.)

  • Is the student emotionally connected to – or disconnected from –other students?

  • Has the student previously come to someone’s attention or raised concern in a way that suggested he or she needs intervention or supportive services? 

  1. Are other people concerned about the student’s potential for violence?

  • Are those who know the student concerned that he or she might take action based on violent ideas or plans? 

  • Are those who know the student concerned about a specific target?

  • Have those who know the student witnessed recent changes or escalations in mood or behavior?

  1. What circumstances might affect the likelihood of an attack?

  • What factors in the student's life and/or environment might increase or decrease the likelihood that the student will attempt to mount an attack at school? 

  • What is the response of other persons who know about the student’s ideas or plan to mount an attack? (Do those who know about the student’s ideas actively discourage the student from acting violently, encourage the student to attack, deny the possibility of violence, passively collude with an attack, etc.?

  1. Does the student see violence as an acceptable – or desirable – or the only – way to solve problems?

  • Does the setting around the student (friends, fellow students, parents, teachers, adults) explicitly or implicitly support or endorse violence as a way of resolving problems or disputes?

  • Has the student been “dared” by others to engage in an act of violence? 

Appendix 5 – Alternative Pickup Locations for District Buses

The following locations are alternative sites for Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk buses to pick up students and/or employees. These locations will only be used in the event that the buses cannot access a district campus (i.e., due to a lockdown or police activity). These alternatives were reviewed by the Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk Director of Transportation.

Primary Loading Site

Possible Alternative Loading Site

RCS Middle School

RCS High School
Pieter B. Coeymans Elementary

A.W. Becker Elementary

RCS High School
RCS Middle School

Pieter B. Coeymans Elementary

St. Patrick’s Church
RCS High School

RCS High School

RCS Middle School
A.W. Becker

Appendix 6 – SRO Contract Agreement

Agreement between the
Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk Central School District
Albany County Sheriff’s Office

The SRO’s primary duty is to protect the school’s environment and to maintain an atmosphere where students, teachers and staff feel safe. SROs are specially trained and receive regular professional development regarding school systems, student populations and developing relationships with school administrators, teachers and students. In this role, the SRO can be an educator, law enforcer and counselor. As an educator, the SRO can visit classrooms and teach students concepts of safety and crime prevention techniques. The SRO can provide a positive image of law enforcement in an effort to help young people make constructive choices in their lives. As a law enforcer, the SRO can investigate criminal activity occurring on school campuses in accordance with New York State law and school district policies. As a counselor, students may come to the SRO to discuss issues and seek individual attention. The SRO can also be available for conferences with students, parents, and staff regarding law related concerns.

The Parties agree as follows:

  1. TERM:

    Either party may cancel this agreement for any reason on 10 days written notice to the other. Upon receipt of such written notice by either party without further obligation to either party, except that the District will pay to ACSO for services rendered to the date of cancellation.


    As a service provider to the students of RCSCSD, ACSO will be committed to excellence and guided by the District’s Mission and Vision.


    ACSO will provide RCSCSD with full-time SRO services in accordance with the following agreement.


  1. Commit to a goal to enhance school safety by providing an increased on-site uniformed police presence, inclusive of all customary law enforcement related equipment, in and around the premises of all RCSCSD facilities. 

  2. Increase students’ awareness about topics such as crime prevention, internet safety, conflict resolution, violence prevention, restorative justice, school attendance, and peer mediation by making educational presentations to student audiences as requested by the District regarding topics such as, but not limited to, crime prevention, internet safety, conflict resolution, violence prevention, restorative justice, school attendance, and peer mediation.

  3. Increase staff awareness about policies and procedures for preventing/responding to incidents of violence and other threats to school safety by making educational presentations to staff audiences regarding policies and procedures for preventing/responding to incidents of violence and other threats to school safety and active participation in any District-wide School Safety Committees.

  4. Actively participate, if requested by RCSCSD or community parent, in conferences with students, parents, and staff regarding law-related concerns.

  5. Investigate criminal activity occurring on school campuses in accordance with New York State law and school district policies and will communicate with RCSCSD, to the extent that said communication does not compromise the criminal investigation, the substance of said investigation. 

  6. Refer potential criminal arrests on school campuses to the ASCO or other law enforcement agency so that said agency may make such arrests thus allowing the SRO to remain at his/her post.  The SRO shall not make arrests on school campus unless the immediate safety of student, staff, or other persons on campuses requires it. In the event that the SRO develops probable cause that a crime has been committed, the SRO is authorized to temporarily detain the individual suspected of committing said crime until the arrival of the responding agency, who will then, after consulting with the SRO, determine whether or not to effectuate an arrest. The ASCO shall communicate with RCSCSD staff regarding arrests made on school grounds and communicate with prosecuting agencies on behalf of RCSCSD regarding said arrests and any proposed and/or desired resolutions. 

  7. The SROs shall work on the premises of the RCSCSD for 8 hours per day, with responsibility in A.W. Becker Elementary, Pieter B. Coeymans Elementary, RCS Middle and High School buildings.  The times commencing and concluding the previously mentioned 8 hour periods may vary depending on the needs of RCSCSD, but shall by mutual agreement and upon reasonable notice provided by RCSCSD. Hours may be flexed to accommodate special events by mutual agreement. An SRO may be provided to accommodate additional hours by mutual agreement and with reasonable notice provided by RCSCSD. 


  1.  Be responsible for managing all school disciplinary matters and RCSCSD shall not involve the SRO in school disciplinary matters unless such matters constitute criminal activity as defined by the New York State Penal Law. In such cases, Sections 8, 9, and 21 of this Agreement shall define the parameters of SRO involvement in interviews and potential arrests on school campuses.

  2. Be responsible for the maintaining of records pertaining to the SRO’s work schedule via a sign-in and sign-out sheet, which is to include but is not limited to workdays and times, days off (including holidays) as the SRO will work during the school year and share the same work schedule as RCSCSD instructional staff. RCSCSD shall submit or make available to ACSO upon request all of said records as well as any other data that ACSO may request concerning work performed or to be performed pursuant to this Agreement. 

  3. Document and communicate any time off request made by the SRO to ACSO for consideration, coverage and approval purposes.

  4. Provide payment to ACSO in the amount of Ninety thousand dollars ($90,000.00) which shall cover the costs associated with the placement of the SROs, payable in two installments of Forty-Five thousand dollars ($45,000), beginning on September 15 and concluding on June 15 each school year.       

  5. Afford the SRO the same rights, capabilities, capacities and access to RCSCSD facilities as any school administrator. 

  6. Provide the SRO with office space, which shall include, at a minimum, a desk, working telephone, computer and internet access. 

  7. Afford the SRO a minimum one (1) hour of office time per day to conduct administrative related services.

  8. Immediately communicate to ACSO any observed instances or allegations of misconduct or abuse of discretion committed by the SRO so that disciplinary and corrective measures may be taken. RCSCSD shall defend, indemnify and hold harmless ACSO and the County of Albany from any and all claims arising from or aggravated by RCSCSD’s failure to report said misconduct or abuse of discretion. 

  9. Selection of SRO

ACSO will select each SRO after consultation with RCSCSD. Factors which ACSO shall consider during the selection process include the following:

  • The SRO must be capable of conveying a positive police presence in the school and in the community.

  • The SRO must have the ability to be a positive resource to the school, staff, students, parents and residents in the surrounding neighborhood. 

  • The SRO must agree to attend any necessary training schools or classes that are needed to increase his/her skills for the position. 

  1. Removal of SRO:

    In the event the RCSCSD administration has cause to believe that a particular SRO is not effectively performing in accordance with the Agreement, the Superintendent may recommend in writing to the Albany County Sheriff’s Office that the SRO be removed from the program. Within ten business days after receiving the recommendations, the Superintendent or his designee will meet with the Albany County Sheriff or his designee to discuss the recommendation. If the problem cannot be resolved in the opinion of both the Superintendent and the Albany County Sheriff, or their designees, then the SRO shall be removed from the program and a replacement SRO will be selected in accordance with this Agreement. The selection process shall not exceed 30 days after the removal of the prior SRO, and the new SRO shall commence work as soon as reasonably practicable after removal of the prior SRO. 

  2. Interviews and Arrest Procedures:

    If the SRO plans to interview possible suspects or victims of crime pursuant to sections 8 and 9 of this Agreement, the SRO, to the extent practicable, will advise the Principal or his/her designee and work with the Principal and his/her designee to minimize disruption to the school, staff, and students. In the event that the SRO wishes to interview a student who is under age 18, RCSCSD employees will make parental notification and seek parental consent for such interviews in accordance with policy as established in RCSCSD regulations and the applicable laws of the State of New York. Provided, however, that nothing herein is intended to prevent the SRO from interviewing a student, without parental notification or consent, in connection with a Child Protective Services (CPS) investigation of suspected child abuse or neglect or as requested by the Building Principal. The Principal or his/her designees may, at the sole expense of RCSCSD, equip the SRO’s designated interview room with a monitoring device, capable of recording and/or live streaming any interviews to a computer selected and accessible only by the Principal or his/her designees, for the purpose observing any interviews conducted. In the event that the arrested student is a juvenile or adolescent offender, ACSO will notify the parents or legal guardian pursuant to ACSO policy and procedure. RCSCSD may also make notification as may be necessary under its own guidelines.

As noted above in Section 9, the SRO shall refer potential criminal arrests on school campuses to the ASCO so that appropriate ASCO staff may make such arrests.  The SRO shall not make arrests on school campus unless the immediate safety of students, staff or other persons on school campuses requires it. With the exception of Section 9 of this Agreement, none of the terms contained herein shall interfere with the sworn duties of the SRO as Deputy of the Albany County Sheriff’s Office and an enforcer of the laws of the State of New York. Additionally, none of the terms contained herein shall supersede the policies and procedures of the Albany County Sheriff’s Office or the applicable laws of the State of New York.  


    ACSO will be solely responsible for employing and compensating any individuals necessary for executing the services outlined in this agreement and to the extent that said compensation is reimbursable by RCSCSD. 


    ACSO shall provide such reports and information as may be required by the District for the purposes of reporting project performance measures to the New York State Department of Criminal Justice Services.


    ACSO agrees to defend, indemnify and hold RCSCSD, its officers, employees, and agents, harmless, at all times during and after the term of this Agreement, from and against all claims, damage, losses, and expenses (including without limitations, reasonable attorneys’ fees) arising from, or in any way connected with the negligent or intentional acts or omissions of, or a breach of any term or condition contained in this Agreement by the ASCO, its employees, agents or representatives.

    ACSO shall maintain a policy of public liability and property damage insurance in which the RCSCSD is named as an additional insured.  The policy shall be non-cancelable without ten (10) days prior written notice to RCSCSD.  The minimum limits of coverage of such insurance shall be $1,000,000 for injury or death, per person or per incident, and $1,000,000 with respect to property damage.  ACSO shall also provide Workers Compensation coverage in accordance with New York State law at all times during the term of this Agreement. A certificate of insurance shall be provided to RCSCSD upon request.


    It is understood and agreed that ACSO, and its employees and agents, is an independent contractor and that it cannot bind RCSCSD to any obligation, or subject it to any liability whatsoever.  As an independent contractor, ACSO and any persons engaged by it shall not be entitled to any medical, health, pension, retirement, disability, unemployment, workers compensation or other insurance or coverage, or any other benefit, similar or dissimilar, from RCSCSD.  Both parties shall make all tax or other governmental reports in accordance with their status as independent contractors.


    Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the written consent of the other party.


    This Agreement constitutes the entire Agreement between the parties.  No amendment may be made in any of its terms without the written consent of the parties.

Appendix 7 – Emergency Remote Instruction Plan

 Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk Emergency Remote Instruction Information

Availability of Devices and Internet Access

In order to facilitate the educational process in the event of an emergency situation that would require remote instruction for students, the school district completes the annual Student Digital Resources collection process to better inform how this plan can serve the school community.  The purpose of this survey is so that the school district can understand the level of access to technology that students within the school district have, primarily in regard to their access to the internet and computers.  

To support remote learning, the district currently provides all students with a Chromebook.  Additionally, the school district shall make hotspot devices available to the greatest extent possible.  When this is not possible, the school district shall work with community partners to help ensure that public access wi-fi points are available for students and families throughout the community to allow for them to participate in remote learning (e.g., outside of the community library and outside of all school buildings). 

The school district’s technology department shall be responsible for assisting students with internet access, including, but not limited to, the use of hotspot devices, and may also be tasked with servicing devices that may not be working properly.  This group may also be responsible for providing on-site instructional support for technology integration and for providing learning opportunities through tutorial videos and other virtual means. 

Should the school district determine in advance that emergency conditions may require the school district to provide remote instruction during the following day(s), students and staff shall be informed of this possibility via their existing internal and external communication channels with as much advance notice as possible.  The school district may communicate this information via the public address system, verbal communication, letters sent home, social media posts, phone calls, and via text messages. 

Inevitably, there may be students in the school community for whom remote learning is not appropriate or possible.  In these situations, the school district shall assess that individual’s unique needs and try to accommodate them with in-person learning, to the extent that is possible.  The school district may also consider utilizing 1:1 aides, instruction by phone, or the creation and dissemination of paper materials to the students home, as well as other methods, to better support their individual needs. 

Provision of Special Education and Related Services

Should remote learning become necessary, the school district shall ensure that special education services are provided to students who need them, in accordance with their individualized education programs (IEPs) and to ensure that they receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE).  In order to facilitate the provision of special education and related services the school district shall ensure that:

-          Consultant teachers and integrated co-teachers shall be available to provide on-going support and to deliver IEP services.

-          Special education classrooms shall collaborate regularly with co-teachers to provide differentiated virtual learning experiences for students on their caseload.

-          Students are provided with prioritized standards-based lessons via Google Meet

-          Students are directly provided with modifications and accommodations as per their IEP

-          All differentiated assignments shall be compliant with NYS guidelines and the student’s IEP

-          Accommodations shall be provided through the student’s 504 plans

-          Special Education teachers shall attend professional learning communities, grade level meetings, and department meetings to discuss continuity of instruction, struggling students, and learning activities

-          Students are provided with daily synchronous instruction via Google Meet

Ensuring clear, ongoing, and shared communication and collaboration is critical to ensuring equitable access to special education programs and services and the continued offer of FAPE for students with disabilities. The district will promote continuous communication and develop collaborative relationships with all educational partners, especially parents/caregivers, to ensure provision of services consistent with recommendations on students’ individualized education programs.

Expectations for Time Spent in Modalities and Foundation Aid

In the event that the school district were required to go to emergency remote instruction, the school district schedule shall mirror what the in-person schedule for the day would have been.  Students shall be provided with opportunities throughout the course of the day to interact with teachers and their peers during live instruction, including group work and question and answer sessions within the classroom structure.   

For state aid purposes, the school district estimates that they will spend approximately six hours of time in remote instruction due to emergency conditions.